MJM Iqbal's Articles

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Issue date : 3/4/2004 mwptpay; GJik

Ke;ija ,jo;fs;

a+dpNkl;
 
tpz;fyj;jpd; gazk;
 
tpz;ntsp Rw;Wyh
 
gwf;Fk; nuapy; 1 & 2
 
gwf;Fk; igf;Ffs;
 
kpjf;Fk; efuk;;
 
caukhd fl;blq;fs;
 
tpz;ntsp kpd;J}f;fp
 
cyfpd; 8-tJ mjprak;...

mLj;J tUgitfs;

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'Nuhgl;L"fs; tsu;e;j ghij...
 

 

'Nuhgl;L"fs; vdg;gLk; ve;jpu kdpjd; jpBnud;W thdj;jpy; ,Ue;J Fjpj;J tpltpy;iy. fk;g;a+l;lu; fz;Lgpbg;gjw;F Kd;Ng 'Nuhgl;L"fspd; rupj;jpuk; njhlq;fp tpl;lJ vd;W rupj;jpu rhd;Wfs; $Wfpd;wd. gy E}w;whz;Lfshf gy tbtq;fspy; 'Nuhgl;L"fs; cUthfp tsu;e;Js;sd. Nuhgl;Lfs; tsu;e;j fijia nfhQ;rk; Gul;bg; ghu;g;Nghk;.

fp.K. 400_k; Mz;by; fpuP]; ehl;by; cs;s lhuz;lk; vd;w ,lj;jpy; trpj;jtu; Mu;fpl];. ,tu; Gfo; ngw;w fzpj Nkij> jj;Jt epGzUk; $l. ,tu; kuj;jpy; jahupj;j Gwh nghk;ik rpwif glgl vd;W mbj;jgb gwe;J nrd;wJ. kug;nghk;ik Gwhtpy; gwf;fr; nra;Ak; ve;jpu njhopy; El;gj;ij mtu; gad;gLj;jp ,Ue;jhu;. mg;NghJ me;j nghk;ik Gwh Rkhu; 200 kPl;lu; J}uk; jhd; gwe;jJ. jw;NghJ n[l; tpkhdq;fspy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; njhopy; El;gj;jpd; Kd;Ndhbahf ,tu; tpsq;fpdhu;.

NkYk; mtuJ gwf;Fk; nghk;ik Gwh jhd; KjyhtJ 'Nuhgl;" vd;Wk; rupj;jpu Ma;thsu;fs; $WtJz;L.

* 16_k; E}w;whz;bd; Muk;gj;jpy; `d;]; Gy;khd; vd;g tu; xU ve;jpu kdpjid cUthf;fpdhu;. fhR nfhLj;jhy; ,irf; fUtpia rpwpJ Neuk; thrpf;Fk; tifapy; me;j ve;jpu nghk;ik tbtikf;fg;gl;L ,Ue;jJ.

* 1533_k; Mz;L N[hfd; Ky;yu; vd;gtu; ,Uk;gpdhy; xU gwf;Fk; '<"ia cUthf;fpdhu;. ,Nj Nghy fOF xd;iwAk; mtu; ,Uk;gpy; tbtikj;J ,Ue;jhu;. ,it ,uz;Lk; jiuapy; ,Ue;J fpsk;gp Fiwe;j cauj;jpy; gwf;Fk; tifapy; jahupf;fg;gl;ld.

* 1543_k; Mz;L ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;ilr; Nru;e;j [hd; b vd;gtu; gwf;Fk; kug;gwit xd;iw cUthf;fpdhu;.

* 1725_k; Mz;L n[u;kd; ehl;by; `Py;gu;d; rhNla+ vd;w ,lj;jpy; xU tpj;jpahrkhd ehlfk; ele;jJ. ,jpy; ebj;j ebfu;fs; midtUNk ve;jpuq;fs; jhd;.

* 1737_k; Mz;L [hFa]; thfd;rd; vd;gtu; xU ve;jpu ,irf; fUtpia cUthf;fpdhu;. 11 tifahd ,irf; Nfhitfis ,irf;Fk; jpwd; nfhz;ljhf ,J ,Ue;jJ. mtu; xU ve;jpu thj;J xd;iwAk; cU thf;fpdhu;. ,e;j ve;jpu thj;J ep[ thj;J Nghy jz;zPupy; ePe;Jk;> rhg;gpLk;> vr;rk; NghLk;. mjw;F Vw;g mjd; tapw;Wf;Fs; fUtpfs; nghUj;jg;gl;L ,Ue;jd.

* 1801_k; Mz;L N[hrg; kupa [hf;fu;L ve;jpu jwp ve;jpuq;fis cUthf;fpdhu;. Jisaplg;gl;l ml;ilfs; %yk; ,e;j Jzp nea;Ak; jwp ve;jpuq;fs; ,aq;fpd.

* 1853 rhu;y]; ghg;Ng[; fzf;F NghLk; ve;jpuk; xd;iw cUthf;fpdhu;. ,Jjhd; KjyhtJ fk;g;a+l;lu; ve;jpukhFk;.

* 1847_y; [hu;[; NghsP vd;gtu; FwpaPl;L fzpj Kiwia cUthf;fpdhu;. gpd;dhspy; ,J fk;g;a+l;lu; ,af;fj;jpy; ngUkstpy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

* 1890 epNfhyha; nl];yh Kjd; Kjypy; upNkhl; fz;l;Nuhypy; ,aq;Fk; thfdj;ij cUthf;fpdhu;.

* 1921 nrf; ehl;L ehlf Mrpupau; fhy; fhngf; vOjpa 've;jpu kdpjd;" fjhghj;jpuk; nfhz;l ehlfk; gugug;ghf Ngrg;gl;lJ.

* 1936 Myd; ^upq; vd;gtu; fk;g;a+l;lu; nray;ghL gw;wpa fz;Lgpbg;Gfis tbtikj;jhu;. ,JNt etPd fk;g;a+l;lu;fs; cUthf mbg;gilahFk;.

* 1942 Irf; mrpNkht; 'Nuhgl;L"fSf;fhd 3 Kf;fpa tpjpfis cUthf;fpdhu;.

* 1943 cyfpd; KjyhtJ vyf;l;uhdpf; fk;g;a+l;lu; 'nfhyh];f];" cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;ilr; Nru;e;j fzpj epGzu;fs;> vyf;l;upf;fy; vd;[pdPau;fs; kw;Wk; csTg;gil mjpfhupfs; ,ize;J ,e;j fk;g; a+l;liu cUthf;fpdhu;fs;.

eh[pg;gilfspd; rq;Nfj FwpaPLfis nkhop ngau;f;f ,e;j ve;jpuk; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

* 1945 ',dpahf;" vd;w fk;g;a+l;lu; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

* 1948_49 tpy;ypak; fpNu thy;lu; vd;w ,q;fpyhe;J fk;g;a+l;lu; tpQ;Qhdp 'vy;ku;" kw;Wk; 'vy;rp" vd;w ,U jhdpaq;fp ve;jpuq;fis cU thf;fpdhu;. ,e;j ,uz;Lk; kdpj capupdk; Nghy nray;gLk; jd;ik nfhz;ljhf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j ,U fUtpfSf;fhd 'ru;f; fpa+l;" mikg;GfSk; rpf;fy; ,y;yhj tifapy; ,Ue;jJ.

* 1950 kdpjidg; Nghy Gj;jp rhypj;jdk; nfhz;l fk;g;a+l;liu cUthf;FtJ Fwpj;J tpQ;Qhdp Myd; ^upq; Ma;Tfs; elj;jpdhu;.

* 1954 [hu;[; bNthy; kw;Wk; N[h VQ;ry;ngu;[u; ,UtUk; ,ize;J cyfpd; KjyhtJ 'njhopw;rhiy Nuhgl;"il cUthf;fpdhu;fs;.

* 1956 mnkupf;fhtpy; ele;j tpQ;Qhdpfs; khehl;by; 'nraw;if Gj;jprhypj;jdk;" gw;wp tpthjk; Kf;fpakhf ,Ue;jJ.

* 1966 ];lhz; Nghu;L Muha;r;rp epWtdk; '\hfP" vd;w KjyhtJ efUk; Nuhgl;il cUthf;fpaJ.

* 1973 ,q;fpyhe;jpy; vbd;gu;f; efupy; nray;gl;l 'nrhw;if Gj;jp rhypj;jdk;" Jiwapd; %ykhf 'gpnul;b2" vd;w ve;jpu kdpjd; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

gy;NtW cjpupg;ghfq;fis xd;whf Nru;j;J xU nghUis cUthf;Fk; gzpia ,e;j ve;jpuk; nra;jJ.

* 1979 `d;]; khutpf; vd;gtu; jhdpaq;fp thfdk; xd;iw cUthf;fpdhu;. ,J jilfis jhz;b nry;Yk; jpwd; nfhz;ljhf ,Ue;jJ.

* 1989 rpwpa mstpy; Nuhgl;Lfs; jahupf;Fk; gzp jPtpukhdJ 'n[y;fp\;" vd;w ngaupy; KjyhtJ elf;Fk; 'Nuhgl;" cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

* 1994 mnkupf;f tpQ;Qhdpfs; 'lhd;b2" vd;w ngaupy; elf;Fk; 'Nuhgl;" xd;iw cUthf;fpdhu;fs;. ,J myh]; fhtpy; cs;s ];gu; vupkiy gFjpf;F mDg;gg;gl;lJ. ,J vupkiy gFjpapy; ele;J nrd;W rhk;gy; kw;Wk; thAf;fis Nrfupj;J te;jJ.

* 1996 ve;jpu kPd;fis tpQ;Qhdp kpNry; cUthf;fpdhu;. ,Nj Mz;by; N`hz;lh epWtdk; elf;f $ba> gbfspy; Vwp ,wq;f$ba> nghUl;fis Rke;J nry;yf;$ba 'Nuhgl;" xd;iw cUthf;fpaJ.

* 1997 nrt;tha; fpufj;Jf;F 'ghj; igz;lu;" tpz; fyj;ij 'ehrh" mDg;gpaJ. ,e;j fyk; nrt;tha; fpufj;jpy; ,wq;f 'Nrh[u;du;" vd;w ve;jpu kdpjid mDg;gpaJ. ,e;j 'Nuhgl;" nrt;tha; fpufj;jpy; gazk; nra;J Ma;Tfspy; <Lgl;lJ.

1999 'INgh" vdg;gLk; eha;f;Fl;b Nuhgl;Lfis Nrhdp epWtdk; ntspapl;lJ.

* 2000 cyfk; KOtJk; 7 yl;rj;J 42 Mapuj;J 500 njhopyf Nuhgl;Lfs; ,Ug;gjhf fzf;nfLg;G ntsp ahdJ. ,tw;wpy; ngUk;ghyhdit [g;ghdpy; gad; gLj;jg;gl;L tUfpd;wd.

2 MapukhtJ Mz;Lf;F gpwF 'Nuhgl;L"fs; mRu tsu;r;rp mile;jd. Fwpg;ghf [g;ghdpd; Nrhdp> N`hz;lh epWtdq;fs; Nuhgl;Lfs; jahupg;gpy; mjpf jPtpuk; fhl;bd. eldk; MLk; NuhNgh> ,irf; fUtpfis ,irf;Fk; NuhNgh> fr;Nrupfis elj;Jk; NuhNgh... vd;W gy tifahd 'NuhNgh"f;fs; jahupf;fg;gl;L tUfpd;wd.

nraw;if Gj;jprhypj;jdk; epiwe;j Nuhgl;Lfis cUthf;FtJ gw;wp Ma;Tfs; jw;NghJ jPtpuk; mile;J tUfpwJ.
 

2. 'Nuhgl;"Lfspd; mbg;gil njhopy; El;gk;

 

ve;jpu kdpjd; vdg;gLk; 'Nuhgl;"Lfspd; Mjpf;fk; xt;nthU JiwfspYk; ehSf;F

ehs; mjpfupj;Jf; nfhz;Nl tUfpwJ. 'Nuhgl;"Lfspd; Muk;g fhy tuyhW Fwpj;J fle;j ,jopy; ghu;j;Njhk;. ,e;j thuk; 'Nuhgl;"Lfspd; mbg;gil njhopy; El;gk; Fwpj;j jfty;fis fhzyhk;.


njhopw;rhiyfs;> Muha;r;rpg; gzp kw;Wk; nghOJ Nghf;F Jiwfs; vd;W gy;NtW Jiwfspy; 'Nuhgl;"Lfs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;L tUfpd;wd.

gy tifahd cUt mikg;ig nfhz;bUe;jhYk; 'Nuhgl;"Lfspd; gy Fzhjpraq;fs;> mbg;gil njhopy; El;gk; xNu khjpupahfj;jhd; ,Uf;Fk;.

Fwpg;ghf midj;J 'Nuhgl;"LfspYk; mtw;wpd; efUk; cly; gFjp xU nghJthd mikg;ghfNt ,Uf;Fk;. ,tw;wpy; rpy 'Nkhl;lhu;" ve;jpuq;fs; %yk; ,af;fg;gLk; rf;fuq;fs; %yk; efUfpd;wd. kw;wit vy;yhk; xU l[d; efUk; cly; gFjpfs; %yk; efU(elf;)fpd;wd. efUk; gFjpfs; cNyhfk; my;yJ 'gpsh]; bf;" nghUl;fshy; jahupf;fg;gl;lit ahf ,Uf;Fk;.

kdpj clk;gpy; cs;s vYk;Gfs; %l;Lfspd; %yk; ,izf;fg;gl;bUg;gJ Nghy 'Nuhgl;"Lfspd; xt;nthU gFjpfSk; 've;jpu %l;L"fs; %yk; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. nghJthf Nuhgl;bd; RoYk; rf;fuq;(fhy;)fSk; RoYk; %l;Lg; gFjpAk; xU ,af;fpAld; (
Actuator) ,izf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;.

,J jtpu kpd; Nkhl;lhu; kw;Wk; tupRUs; (
Soleniod) ,af;fpfs;> ePupay; Kiw ,af;fpfs; (Hydraulic Actuators)> fhw;wpaf;f ,af;fpfs; (Pneumatic Actuators) Nghd;wit %yKk; 'Nuhgl;"Lfspd; ,af;fq;fs; cUthf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;j ,af;fpfis ,af;Ftjw;fhd rf;jp 'Ngl;lup" %yk; fpilf;fpwJ.

ePupay; Kiw %yk; ,aq;Fk; 'Nuhgl;"Lfspy; mOj;jg;gl;l jputq;fisg; ngWtjw;fhf xU 'gk;g;" $Ljyhf ,izf;fg;gl;L ,Uf;Fk;. mNj Nghy mOj; jg;gl;l thAf;fs; %yk; ,aq;Fk; 'Nuhgl;"Lfspy; xU fhw;W mOj;j ve;jpuk; (
Air Compressor) $Ljyhf ,Uf;Fk;.

,e;j ,af;fq;fs; midj;Jk; gy tau; ,izg;Gfs; %yk; xU kpd; Rw;wpy; (
Electric Circuit) ,izf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j ru;f;fpa+l;Lfs; Neubahf kpd; Nkhl;lhu;fs; kw;Wk; tupr; RUs;fis cap&l;Lfpd;wd. ,jd; %yk; fpilf;Fk; rf;jp kpd; thy;Tfis ,af;Ftjw;F cjTfpd;wd. ,e;j thy;Tfs; mOj;jg;gl;l jputq;fspd; msit jPu;khdpf;fpd;wd. ,jd; %yk; Nuhgl;Lfspd; fhy;fs; mbnaLj;J itf;fpd;wd.

RUf;fkhf nrhy;tJ vd;why; Nuhgl;bd; fl;Lg;ghl;L gpuptpy; ,Ue;J ngwg;gLk; fl;lisfs; %yk; thy;Tfs; ,af;fg;gLfpd;wd. Nuhgl; ,aq;Fk; NghJ thy;Tfs; jpwe;J gk;gpy; ,Ue;J tUk; mOj;jg;gl;l jputq;fs; Nuhgl;bd; fhypy; ,izf;fg;gl;l xU FLitapd; gp];lid nrd;wilfpwJ. ,e;j mOj;j jputq;fs; gp];lid ,af;Ftjhy; fhy;fs; mbnaLj;J itf;fpd;wd.
 

 

,Nj Nghy cly; gFjpfis Kd;Dk; gpd;Dk; mirf;f ,U GwKk; ,aq;Fk; gp];ld;fs; gad;gLj;jg; gLfpd;wd. Nuhgl;by; cs;s 'fk;g;a+l;lu;" ,e;j ru;f;fpa+l;bd; midj;J nray;fisAk; fl;Lg;gLj;JfpwJ. ngUk;ghyhd Nuhgl;Lfs; kWnray; mikg;G (Reprogrammable) trjpiaf; nfhz;lJ MFk;. ,jd; %yk; nray;ghLfis ekf;F Vw;wthW vg;gb Ntz;LkhdhYk; khw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;. midj;J Nuhgl;LfspYk; 'czup Kiw" (Sensory System) ,Uf;fhJ. rpy Nuhgl;Lfs; ghu;f;Fk;> Nfl;Fk;> efUk; kw;Wk; Rit mwpAk; jpwd; nfhz;lit. ,Ug;gpDk; jd; ,af;fq;fis jhNd mwpe;J nfhs;Sk; jd;ik (Sense of Movement) mNdfkhf midj;J Nuhgl;Lfspy; ,Uf;Fk; nghJthd KiwahFk;.

xU epu;za tbtikg;G (
Standard design) Nuhgl;Lfspd; %l;Lf;fspy; gy ,ilntspfs; (Slotted) nfhz;l rf;fuq;fs; nghUj;jg;gl;bUf;Fk;. ,e;j rf;fuj;jpd; xU gFjpapy; xsp ckpOk; lNahL (Light Emiting Diode) nghUj;jgl;bUf;Fk;.

,e;j lNahL %yk; ckpog;gLk; xsp rf;fuj;jpd; ,ilntspapy; GFe;J kWGwj;jpy; cs;s xU czup %yk; nrd;wilfpwJ. Nuhgl;bd; %l;L efUk;nghOJ ,jDld; ,izf;fg;gl;l rf;fuq;fs; efuj; njhlq;Ffpd;wd. mt;thW RoYk; nghOJ ,ilntspfSk; jLg;GfSk; khwpkhwp tUfpd;wd. ,il ntspfs; tUk;nghOJ xspf;fw;iw fs; czupiar; nrd;wilfpd;wd.

jLg;Gfs; tUk;nghOJ xspf; fw;iwfs; czupiar; nrd;wiltJ jLf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,t;thW khwp khwp Vw;gLk; khWjy;fis ftdpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;> czup ,e;j jfty;fis fzpzpf;F mDg;GfpwJ. ,e;j msTfis itj;J Nuhgl;fspd; %l;Lfspd; ,af;f msit fk;g;a+l;lu; Jy;ypakhf fzf;fpl;L njuptpf;fpwJ.

,t;thW gy gFjpfisf; nfhz;Lk; gy Neu;j;jpahd tbtikg;igf; nfhz;Lk; gytpjkhd jpwk;gl;l mrhjhuzkhd ve;jpu kdpju;fs; cUthf;fg;gLfpd;wdu;. ,tw;wpy; ,d;W njhopw;rhiyapy; GFe;J cw;gj;jpia fyf;fpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ ve;jpuf; fuk; (
Robotic Arm)

ve;jpuf; fuq;fs; (
Robotic Arm):-

'ciof;Fk; fuq;fNs cUthf;Fk; iffNs ehis GJ cyif cUthf;Fk; iffNs" vd ftpauR fz;zjhrd; mtu;fs; ghl;lhsp tu;f;fj;jpd; mUik ngUikfisg; gw;wp ghbdhu;. ve;jpu cyfpd; ghl;lhspfspy; Kjd;ik tfpf;Fk; ,e;j ve;jpuf; iffs; ,e;jg; ghl;Lf;F Vw;wthW GJ cyifg; gilj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. ,tw;wpd; ciog;G %yk; Vw;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; njhopy; cw;gj;jp Gul;rpfs; rupj;jpuk; gilj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.

NuhNghl; vd;w ngau; 'nrf;" nkhopapy; (
Czech) 'NuhNghlh" (Robota) vd;w thu;j;ijapypUe;J te;jJ MFk;. NuhNghlh vd;why; 'nrf;" nkhopapy; mbikj; njhopyhsp (Forced Labour) vd;W mu;j;jk;. ngUk; ghyhd NuhNghl;Lfs; njhopw;rhiyfSf;F Vw;wthW tbtikj;J cw;gj;jpg; gpupTfspy; gzpahw;Wfpd;wd. kpfTk; fdkhd nghUl;fs; cw;gj;jp kw;Wk; kPs;epfo; cw;gj;jpfspy; (Repated ManufacturingP) fyf;fpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. kdpju;fshy; Kbahj Mgj;jhd kw;Wk; vspjhf Nrhu;Tw;Wg; NghFk; gzpfspy; ,e;j ve;jpuj; njhopyhspfs; jd; gzpfis nrt;tNd nra;J Kbf;fpd;wd. ,t;thW cw;gj;jpj; Jiwfspy; gzpahw;Wk; NuhNghl;Lfspy; ngUk; ghd;ikahdit 've;jpuf;fuq;fs;" (Robotic Arm) tiffisr; rhu;e;jJ.

,e;j ve;jpuf; fuq;fs; VO cNyhfg; gFjpfisf; nfhz;lJ. ,e;jg; gFjpfs; MW %l;Lfspy; ,izf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; fzpdpfs; %yk; gpwg;gpf;fg;gLk; fl;lisfs; %l;Lfis ,af;fg;gad;gLk; '];nlg;" Nkhl;lhu;fis Royr; nra;J ,e;jf; iffs; ,af;fk; ngWfpd;wd. kpfg; ngupa ve;jpuf;iffs; ePupay; kw;Wk; fhw;wpaf;f Kiwfs; %yk; ,af;fg;gLfpd;wd. kw;w Nkhl;lhu;fisg; Nghy; ,y;yhky; ,e;j ];nlg; Nkhl;lhu;fspd; Jy;ypakhd kw;Wk; rupahd mstpy; Ntfj;ij vl;Lk; jpwd; nfhz;lJ. ,e;jj; jpwdhy; fzpdp ,ae;jpuf; fuq;fis kpfTk; rhJu;akhfTk;> vj;jid Kiw Ntz;LkhdhYk; jpUk;g jpUk;g mNj epiyfspy; Jy;ypakhfTk; ,af;FfpwJ.

,e;j NuhNghl;Lfs; ,af;f czupfis (
Motion Sensors) nfhz;bUg;gjhy;> ,tw;wpd; %yk; efUk; ghfq;fspd; msT Njitahd mNj rkak; Jy;ypakhd msthf ,Ug;gij cWjp nra;fpwJ. 6 %l;Lfisf; nfhz;l njhopw;rhiy NuhNghl;Lfs; kdpj fuq;fspd; mbg;gilia xj;jjhf ,Uf;Fk;.

,e;j NuhNghl;Lfs; Njhs;gl;il> Koq;if kw;Wk; kzpf;fl;Lfisf; nfhz;ljhf ,Uf;Fk;. ,jpy; Njhs;gl;il epiyahd cly; fl;likg;gpy; (
Stationary Base Structure) nghUj;jg;gl;bUf;Fk;. ,e;j tif NuhNghl;Lfs; 6 bfpup Nfhzj;jpy; Rod;W ,aq;Fk; jd;ik nfhz;lJ. (ekJ fuq;fs; 7 bfpup Nfhzk; tiu Rod;W ,aq;Fk; jd;ik nfhz;lJ MFk;). ekJ fuq;fs;> iffis xU ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J kW ,lj;jpw;F efur; nra;tjw;F cjTfpd;wd. ,ijg; NghyNt NuhNghtpy; fuq;fSk; ,jd; iffis xU ,lj;jpypUe;J kW ,lj;jpw;F efur; nra;tjw;F cjtp Gupfpd;wd. ,e;jf; iffs; vd;l; v/ngf;lu; (End Effector) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ. vd;l; v/ngf;lu;fs; ekJ iffisg; NghyNt gy;NtWtpjkhd nghUl;fis ,yhtfkhf gpbj;J J}f;Ftjw;F gad;gLfpwJ.

ve;jpuf; fuq;fs; mOj;j czupfis (Pressure Sensors) nfhz;bUf;Fk;. mOj;j czupfs; NuhNghl;Lfspy; iffspy; vt;tsT mOj;jj;jpy; gpbj;jpUf;fpwJ vd;gij fzpdpf;F njupag;gLj;Jfpd;wd. ,jd; %yk; ,J gpbj;jpUf;Fk; nghUl;fs; eOthkYk;> cilahkYk; ,Uf;f toptif nra;ag;gLfpwJ. kw;w vd;l; v/ngf;lu;fs; JisapLk; fUtpfs;> jPg;ge;jk; kw;Wk; njspg;G G+r;R ve;jpuq;fs; nghUj;jg;gl;bUf;Fk;.

,e;j ve;jpu fuq;fs; NghyNt njhopw;rhiy NuhNghl;Lfs; tbtikf;fg;gLfpd;wd. njhopw;rhiy cw;gj;jpapy; xU fz;zhb [hbapd; %biag; nghUj;Jk; nghOJ vt;tsT jpwikahf nray;gLfpwJ vd;gijg; ghu;g;Nghk;.

Kjypy; ,e;j %bia [hbapy; rupahfg; nghUj;Jtjw;F NuhNghl;LfSf;F nrhy;ypj; jug;gLfpwJ. mjhtJ xU 'GNuhfpuhku;" %yk; ,jd; fuq;fis xU ifalf;Ff; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf; fUtp %yk; ,af;fj;jpw;F cs;shf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j mirTfspd; tupirfis ,e;j NuhNghl;Lfs; gjpT nra;J nfhz;L ,e;jg; gzpia vt;tsT Kiw Ntz;LkhdhYk; kpfTk; rpwg;ghf nra;J Kbf;fpd;wd.

njhopw;rhiy NuhNghl;Lfs; ngUk;ghyhdit thfd cw;gj;jpapy;jhd; gzpahw;Wfpd;wd. ,itfs; xUq;fpizg;Gg; gFjpapy; (
Assembly line;) thfdq;fspd; ghfq;fis xd;wpizf;fg; gad;gLfpwJ. ,e;j khjpupg; gzpfspy; cs;s Ntiyg;gSit fzf;fpNy vLj;Jf; nfhs;shj ,e;j ve;jpu kdpju;fs; jpUk;g jpUk;g mNj gzpfis jpwk;gl nra;J Kbf;fpd;wd. gy gzpfis Jy;ypakhf (tpau;it rpe;jhky;!) Kbg;gjpy; kdpju;fis kpQ;Rfpd;wd. JisapLk; gzpapd;NghJ mNj ,lj;jpy; rupahf JisapLtJk;> mNjkhjpup vj;jid Jisfs; Nghl Ntz;Lnkd;why; $l rypf;fhky; JisapLtJk;> Nghy;l;Lfis nghUj;Jk; nghOJ rupahd tpir mstpy; KWf;FtJk; ,jd; nray;ghl;bd; rpwg;gk;rq;fshFk;. thfd cw;gj;jpapy; kl;Lky;y> fzpdp cw;gj;jpj; Jiwapy; ,jd; gzpfs; kfj;jhdit. kpfTk; rpwpajhd El;gkhd Ez;njhL Jz;Lfis (Micro Chip) cw;gj;jp nra;tjw;Fg; gad;gLfpd;wd.

mLj;j ,jopy;...

tPl;L cgNahf Nuhgl;Lfs; gw;wpa jfty; ,lk; ngWfpwJ.

jfty; njhFg;G: vk;.N[.vk;.,f;ghy;> Jgha;.

#upaid MuhAk; a+ypr]; nraw;if Nfhs;
 

 

tpz;ntspapy; cs;s fpufq;fs; midj;Jk; #upaid ikakhf nfhz;Nl RoYfpd;wd. #upadpy; ,Ue;J fpsk;Gk; ntg;g fjpu;fs;> #upadpy; epyTk; fhe;j rf;jpfs;> mq;F epyTk; fhe;jg; Gay;fs; Nghd;wit fhuzkhf G+kp Kjy; gpw fpufq;fs; tiu ghjpg;Gfs; Vw;gLfpwJ. vdNt tpz;ntspf;F nraw;ifNfhs;fis mDg;gp mjd; %yk; #upaid Muhayhk; vd;W tpQ;Qhdpfs; KbT nra;jdu;.

,J njhlu;ghf mnkupf;fhtpy; cs;s ehrh tpz;ntsp Muha;r;rp epWtdKk; INuhg;gpa tpz;ntsp Muha;r;rp epWtdKk; ,ize;J ,e;j #upa Muha;r;rpapy; ,wq;fpd. ,ijj;njhlu;e;J #upaid Muha 1990-k; Mz;L mf;Nlhgu; khjk; 6-e;Njjp a+ypr]; nraw;ifNfhs; tpz;zpy; nrYj;jg;gl;lJ. mg;NghJ b];ftup tpz;ntsp Xlk; a+ypr]; nraw;ifNfhis tpz;Zf;F Rke;J nrd;wJ.

#upadpy; cs;s jl;g ntg;g epiy>mq;F epyTk; fhe;j Gay; gw;wpa jfty;fs; Nrfupj;jy;> #upadpy; Vw;gLk; fUk; Gs;spfs; Nghd;wit gw;wp a+ypr]; MuhAk; vd;W tpQ;Qhdpfs; $wpdhu;fs;.

b];ftup Xlj;jpd; ruf;F gFjpapy; a+ypr]; Nfhs; Vw;wg;gl;L tpz;ntspf;F nfhz;L nry;yg;gl;lJ. gpd;du; tpz;ntspapy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l cauj;Jf;F nrd;wJk; a+ypr]; Nfhs; tpz;zpy; ,Ue;j gbNa #upaid Nehf;fpa jdJ gazj;ij njhlq;fpaJ.

Rkhu; 95 Nfhb fpNyhkPl;lu; J}uk; gazk; nra;j a+ypr]; Nfhs; mq;fpUe;jgbNa #upaid Muhaj;njhlq;fpaJ.

a+ypr]; Nfhspd; vil-366.7 fpNyh fpuhk;.

ePsk;-3.2 kPl;lu;. mfyk;-3.3 kPl;lu;. cauk;-2.1 kPl;lu;.

,jpy; 9 tifahd Ma;Tf;fUtpfs; ,lk; ngw;W ,Ue;jd.

rf;jp tha;e;j Nfkpuh> #upa fjpu; tPr;Rfis MuhAk; fUtpfs;> etPd jfty; njhlu;G rhjdq;fs; Nghd;wit a+ypr]; Nfhspy; nghUj;jg;gl;L ,Uf;fpwJ. mZrf;jp %yk; kpd; rf;jpia jahupf;Fk; trjpfs; ,jpy; mikf; fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

,jd; %yk; a+ypr]; Nfhs; gazj;jpd; NghJ jdf;F Njitahd kpd;rhuj;ij jhNd cw;gj;jp nra;J nfhs;Sk;.

a+ypr]; Nfhs; tpz;zpy; Vtg;gl;lNghJ mjd; MAl;fhyk; 5 Mz;Lfs; vd;W tpQ;Qhdpfs; fzpj;J ,Ue;jdu;. Mdhy; a+ypr]; Nfhs; mw;Gjkhf nray; gl;ljhy; mjd; MAl;fhyk; njhlu;e;J ePbf;fg;gl;L tUfpwJ.

a+ypr]; Nfhs; jdJ gazj;jpd; NghJ Kjy; jlitahf 1992 k; Mz;L [{gplu; fpufj;ij neUq;fp Muha;e;jJ. fhe;jg;Gyk; kpf;f Fspu;r;rpahd [{gplu; fpufj;ij Muha;e;j gpwF #upaid Nehf;fp gazk; nra;jJ.#upaid mjd; ,U Kidfspy; ,Ue;Jk; Ma;T nra;jJ. jdJ gazj;jpd; mLj;j fl;lkhf fle;j etk;gu; khjk; kPz;Lk; [{gplu; fpufj;ij neUq;fp ,Uf;fpwJ.njhlu;e;J [{gplu; fpufj;ij Vg;uy; khjk; tiu tyk; te;J MuhAk;.

tpQ;Qhdpfspd; jw;Nghija fzpg;Ggb a+ypr]; Nfhs; 2007k; Mz;L tiu tpz;ntspapy; Rw;wp te;J #upaid Muha;e;J G+kpf;F jfty;fis mDg;gp itf;Fk;.
 

 

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