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gps]; ^ khztHfSf;F rpy Nahridfs; 

ed;wp: jpdkzp ehspjo; mf;NlhgH 04 2005

gbg;gJ vg;gb

gps]; ^ khztu;fNs! ey;y kjpg;ngz; ngw vg;gb gbg;gJ vd;gJ Fwpj;J cq;fSf;F rpy bg;];:

gbg;gJ vd;gJ %d;W tifahd nray;fis cs;slf;fpaJ. 

1.$u;e;J ftdpj;jy; (Observation)> 

2.njhlu;GgLj;Jjy; (Correlation)> 

3.nray;gLj;jy; (Application

$u;e;J ftdpj;jy;

$u;e;J ftdpj;jy; vd;gJ ehk; xU Gj;jfj;ijg; gbf;Fk;NghJ mJ vijg;gw;wpf; $WfpwJ vt;thW $WfpwJ vd;gijf; ftdj;Jld; gbg;gjhFk;. 

njhlu;G gLj;Jjy;

mt;thW ehk; $u;e;J ftdpf;Fk; GJ tp\aq;fis Vw;nfdNt ekf;F ed;F njupe;j xU rpytw;NwhL njhlu;G Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,J ek; epidtpypUf;f cjTfpwJ. 

nray;gLj;jy;

ehk; Gjpjhff; fw;wtw;iwj; jFe;j R+o;epiyfs; tUk;NghJ gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. cjhuzkhf> ehk; Gjpjhf xU nra;Aisf; fw;Nwhnkd;why;> mJNghd;w ekf;Fj; njupe;j ghlYld; njhlu;G nra;Jnfhs;tNjhL kl;Lky;yhky;> Ngr;Rg;Nghl;b> fbjq;fs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; ehk; fw;w me;j nra;As;ghliyg; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,J fw;wij kwe;Jtplhky; ,Uf;f cjTfpwJ. 

fw;wy; nraw;ghq;F: (Learning Process) 

ftdj;NjhL Nfl;gJ my;yJ gbg;gJ: vd;d ghlk;- mjpypUe;J vd;d vjpu;ghu;f;fyhk; vd;gJ njspthfj; njupe;jhy; kpf vspjhff; fy;tp fw;fyhk;. 

Fwpg;G vLf;f Ntz;Lk;:

Mrpupau; ghlq;fisf; fw;Wj;jUk;NghJk;> gbf;Fk;NghJk; Fwpg;G vLf;f Ntz;Lk;. Fwpg;ngLj;jgpd; vd;d fw;Nwhk; vd;gij epidTgLj;jpg; ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. 

Gjpjhff; fw;wtw;iw mbf;fb nrhe;j thu;j;ijapy; nrhy;ypg;ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. Gjpjhff; fw;wtw;iwj; jFe;j R+o;epiyfs; fpilf;Fk;Nghnjy;yhk; eilKiwg;gLj;jy; my;yJ nray;gLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

vt;thW gbg;gJ?:

jiyg;Gfisg; gbj;Jg; Gupe;Jnfhz;L mjidf; Nfs;tpahf khw;Wtjd; %yk; ehk; vd;d gbf;fg; NghfpNwhk; vd;gJ ekf;F ed;F GupAk;. 

Kf;fpaj; jiyg;Gf;Ff; fPo; cs;s rpwpa jiyg;GfisAk;> vLj;Jf;fhl;LfisAk; tiuglq;fisAk; Muha;e;J mwptjd; %yk; ehk; gbf;Fk; Gj;jfk;> ghlk; ekf;Ff; $Wk; Kf;fpaf; fUj;J vd;d vd;gJ njupAk;. 

xt;nthU jiyg;Gf;Ff; fPo; cs;s Kjy; gj;jp> ghlj;jpd; gpd;gFjpapy; cs;s RUf;fkhd njhFg;G kw;Wk; tpdhf;fis ed;F gbj;Jg; ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. 

,t;thW nra;jgpd;> ePq;fs; vd;d fw;Wf;nfhz;Bu;fs; vd;gij epidTgLj;jpg;ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. 

xU jhspy; ePq;fs; njupe;Jnfhz;l midj;ijAk; vOjpg; ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. 

mjid rupghu;j;J> NkYk; vd;d njupa Ntz;Lk; vd;gijg; Gupe;Jnfhz;L kPz;Lk; gbj;jhy; mg;ghlj;ij vspjha; ek; kdj;jpy; epWj;j KbAk;. xU ghlj;ijg; gbf;fj; njhlq;Fk; Kd; ve;j Kiwapy; gbg;gJ vd;gJ kpf mtrpak;. Gj;jfj;ij vLj;jTld; Kjy; gj;jpapy; ,Ue;J kdg;ghlk; nra;a Muk;gpj;J tplf;$lhJ. fPo;f;fz;l Kiwiag; gpd;gw;wpg; gbf;f Muk;gpj;jhy; kpf vspjhff; FWfpa Neuj;jpy; kdj;jpy; epiyepWj;jpf; nfhs;syhk;. 

gbf;fg; NghFk; ghlk; KOtijAk; NkNyhl;lkhf thrpf;f Ntz;Lk;. 

jiyg;GfSf;Fk;> Jizj; jiyg;GfSf;Fk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. 

,jdhy; ,g;ghlk; vijg;gw;wpaJ vd;gJ tpsq;Fk;. 

ghlr;RUf;fj;ij ed;whfg; gbf;f Ntz;Lk;. 

,jpYs;s rpy thu;j;ijfisg; gbf;Fk;NghJ kdjpy; Nfs;tpfs; vOk;. (vLj;Jf;fhl;L: capupaypy; irl;Nlhgpshrk; vd;w nrhy;iy thrpf;Fk;NghJ irl;Nlhgpshrk; vd;why; vd;d vd;gijj; njupe;Jnfhs;Sk; Mu;tk; tUk;.) 

tpdh vOg;Gjy;: (Asking Questions)

ghlr;RUf;fj;ij thrpj;jgpwF> ghlj;jpYs;s jiyg;Gfs; midj;ijAk; Nfs;tpfshf khw;wp ekf;Fs; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. 

,t;thW nra;jhy; mijj; njupe;Jnfhs;tjw;fhd Mu;tk; mjpfupf;Fk;. 

vjw;fhf ,ijg; gbf;fpNwd;> mjd; gad; vd;d? vd;gij mwpe;Jnfhs;tjw;fhd Mu;tk; mjpfupf;Fk;. (vLj;Jf;fhl;L) mwptpaypy; kpd;dhw;gFg;G vd;w jiyg;ig thrpf;Fk;NghJ kpd;dhw;gFg;G vd;why; vd;d? vd;w Nfs;tpia kdj;jpy; vOg;g Ntz;Lk;. 

thrpj;jy; (Read) mu;j;jk; GupAk;gb ftdkhf thrpf;f Ntz;Lk;. 

gbj;jtw;iw ekf;F Vw;nfdNt njupe;jtw;NwhL njhlu;Gg;gLj;jp vLj;Jf;fhl;NlhL gbf;f Ntz;Lk;.

Gj;jfj;jpy; mjpfkhf mbf;NfhbLtijj; jtpu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. 

kpfTk; Kf;fpakhd thu;j;ijfis kl;Lk; mbf;Nfhbl Ntz;Lk;. 

,jdhy;> jpUk;gpg; ghu;f;Fk;NghJ Fog;gkpy;yhky; vspjhfg; ghlj;ij epidtpw;F nfhz;Ltu KbAk;. 

jpUk;gr; nrhy;ypg; ghu;j;jy;: 

thrpj;J Kbj;jgpwF> Kf;fpakhdtw;iw epidTf;Ff; nfhz;Lte;J nrhy;ypg; ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. 

,k;KiwahdJ gbj;jtw;iw epidtpy; epWj;jpf; nfhs;s kpfr; rpwe;j topahFk;. 

gbj;jtw;iw nrhe;j thu;j;ijfspy; rg;jkhfr; nrhy;ypg; ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. 

Nkw;nfhz;l Kiwfisg; gpd;gw;wp xU gpupit Kbj;jTld; mLj;j gpuptpw;Fr; nry;y Ntz;Lk;. 

Nju;T vOjpg; ghu;j;jy;:

,e;j Kiwfspy; ghlk; KOtijAk; gbj;J Kbj;j gpwF khjpupj; Nju;T vOjpg; ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. xUKiw KjypypUe;J midj;ijAk; jpUk;gpg; ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. jiyg;Gk; vt;thW kw;wtw;Wld; njhlu;GgLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gijg; Gupe;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. filrpahf ghlr;RUf;fj;ij ,d;ndhU Kiw thrpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

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